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Harmony And Voice Leading 4th Edition Pdf Download [WORK]

Harmony & Voice Leading is a thorough, well-written and well-illustrated book. It deals extensively and exhaustively with the basic musical theory necessary to understand harmony; more advanced topics are then covered, such as dissonance and chromaticism as part of a wider discussion of voice-leading. This fourth edition (it's a volume with a venerable history), published this year, now contains detailed coverage of species counterpoint.

harmony and voice leading 4th edition pdf download

This article presents a empirical characterization of tonal harmony, the core organization system of Western music. Using the Annotated Beethoven Corpus, one of the largest datasets of expert-annotated harmonic analyses available to date, we adopt a statistical approach to model tonal harmony and to advance the methodological state-of-the-art in music research. We propose an overarching model employing four core dimensions (centricity, referentiality, directedness, and hierarchy) and explore the dataset under that paradigm. Importantly, we do not claim that these dimensions provide an exhaustive characterization of tonal music, as we leave other structural aspects such as meter, rhythm, voice-leading, and hierarchical syntax out of account. Nonetheless, the dimensions considered here constitute central pillars of the Western musical system.

In the baroque era, a set of rules developed for voice leading in four-part harmony. In these rules, the bass voice would be assigned the root of the chord, although it can occasionally be assigned the fifth or the third. If the chord is a triad, the root is generally doubled by one of the other voices. When two voices are harmonized in perfect intervals (fourths, fifths and octaves), repeats of the same interval between the two voices (also known as moving in parallels) are almost always avoided.

Another rule concerns perfect cadences. In such cadences, the leading tone (the seventh scale degree) must resolve step-wise to the tonic. That is, the voice that plays the leading tone must resolve up to the tonic, and if the chord is a dominant seventh chord, the subdominant should resolve to the mediant.

ABSTRACT: This article develops a transformational space based on the concept of guide tones. In jazz pedagogy, guide tones are the chordal third and seventh and are often used to connect consecutive chords through efficient voice leading. Transformational representations of guide-tone syntax illustrate how guide tones provide a pathway for listeners and improvisers to seamlessly traverse the tonally complex harmonic progressions often found in jazz compositions.

[1.4] The presence of guide-tone theory in so many pedagogical works attests to its intuitiveness to jazz musicians and pedagogues. Likewise, its proliferation as a pedagogical tool has facilitated its reception both intellectually and in musical practice: students who are trained to think of guide tones as essential and practice playing and/or hearing guide-tone lines develop an understanding of jazz harmony and voice leading undergirded by guide-tone theory.

[1.7] In many tunes, guide-tone lines support an impression of seamlessness as they provide a means of traversing tonal space through efficient voice leading. Depicting guide-tone voice leading as a transformational space allows us to visualize more clearly these voice-leading relationships and the melodic paths that they afford listeners and improvisers. One of the benefits of transformational spaces is their comprehensive nature, as one can easily visualize the entire gamut of transformations afforded by the space. By taking guide-tone dyads as our transformational object-family and formalizing a transformation-family to relate those objects, we can investigate the possibilities afforded by guide-tone voice-leading syntax in jazz.(15) In the section that follows, I formalize this transformational space.

[2.4] 5-dyads are represented as vertical line segments between two adjacent pc vertices on the Tonnetz. 6-dyads are represented as diagonal line segments extending from southwest to northeast between two diagonally adjacent pc vertices in the Tonnetz. Musical transformations between gt dyads may be visualized as geometrical transformations on the two-dimensional Tonnetz grid.(23) The most familiar of these is the transposition operation, Tn, formalized below.(24) The Tonnetz representation of the Tn operation is shown in Examples 6a and 6b, where gt dyads are translated left or right along the x-axis. Sample harmonizations of each dyad involved in the transformation are shown beneath each of the examples. It is worth emphasizing that, in each case, any chord in the left column may progress to any chord in the right column (or vice versa) and preserve the smooth guide-tone voice leading illustrated in the example. Following the constraints developed above (gt motion may not exceed ic2, total displacement may not exceed 4), only four values are used for n of Tn throughout this article: 2, 1, -1, and -2.(25)

[2.7] Reflections of the 5-dyad are also of analytical use as they model parsimonious voice leading where the moving voice moves by a whole step. These operations, Ru and Rd (reflection up and reflection down, respectively) are formalized below. Their Tonnetz representations are shown in Example 10. The Ru operation reflects a 5-dyad across the x-axis of its upper vertex while the Rd operation reflects a 5-dyad across the x-axis of its lower vertex. Sample harmonizations for each dyad are shown below Example 10.

[2.8] When both guide tones of a 5-dyad move by semitone in contrary motion and form another 5-dyad, this is represented by the C (contrary motion) transformation. The C transformation is best visualized as a translation along the southwest/northeast axis, shown in Example 11. Sample harmonizations for each dyad are listed beneath Example 11. Note that a translation northeast results in the same dyad as a translation southwest due to the redundancy of the ic6 axis. This motion may also be understood as either RuT-1 or RdT1 (shown in Example 12). However, neither of these combinations captures the semitonal voice leading involved in the C transformation, and both require more voice-leading work. For this reason, I prefer the visualization found in Example 11.(28)

[2.10] Transformations where each gt moves by greater than ic2 may be diagrammed on the gt Tonnetz, but are less likely to be heard because the tones are moving by more than a step. Because this article is chiefly concerned with smooth voice leading, I have left all such transformations in the space unformalized.

[2.11] As with many, if not most, geometric and graph depictions of voice-leading relationships, following transformations on the gt Tonnetz can feel more alien than simply following the same transformations on a musical staff. It is worth emphasizing that the purpose of using the gt Tonnetz is not that the space is easier to follow, but that it more accurately represents the ways in which the gts in harmonies progress from one to another without direct reference to the contexts to which they belong. In some ways, this is similar to the Neo-Riemannian Tonnetz: while it may not be easier to think in terms of moves on a Tonnetz, it is an alternative means of notation that clarifies its syntax. Indeed, both the Neo-Riemannian and gt Tonnetze are useful in part because they defamiliarize otherwise familiar music-theoretical objects. This opens new avenues for interpreting their relationships. Unlike the Neo-Riemannian Tonnetz, however, gt space also helps to separate the relationships between gt dyads from their surrounding context. This separation has two uses: First, it allows us to see the various transpositional and inversional relationships that are established between particular gt dyads; second, it suggests that even when tonal coherence is not found through other harmonic-analytical ventures, coherence may be established through gt transformations. Thus, the gt Tonnetz helps to visualize a significant alternative space, where coherence is established solely through the voice-leading properties of guide tones.

[4.1] In the previous sections, we formalized a transformational space that visualizes the voice-leading syntax established by guide tones and explored some of the ways in which the space may be used to model various kinds of harmonic structures. It will now be useful to consider how guide-tone syntax relates to tonal, diatonic syntax. To do this, let us more closely examine the parallels between neo-Riemannian theory and gt space.

[4.3] Though differences exist, guide-tone dyads and consonant triads share a few notable properties. Like consonant triads, gt dyads can be generated from one another using parsimonious voice leading. These smooth voice-leading procedures form a syntax by being constrained in particular ways (following the transformations codified above): no single gt may move by more than ic2 and the total voice-leading displacement may not exceed 4.

[4.4] Yet gt dyads establish a much more complicated relationship with their musical surroundings. Unlike consonant triads, which may often faithfully represent the entirety of pitch material over a given span of time, gt dyads are always situated within a larger harmonic context as chord members, and the harmonies to which they belong are often at least somewhat indeterminate due to the improvisational circumstances of jazz performance. Indeed, although an isolated 5-dyad would be acoustically resonant, such resonance is mostly irrelevant when the dyad is placed in its larger context as the third and seventh of a given harmony. This makes establishing relationships with parent collections problematic as well. In pan-triadic syntax, the handful of distinct triads generated by chains of L and P operations may be considered subsets of a parent hexatonic collection, the symmetric properties of which avoid establishing tonal hierarchies found in the diatonic collection. The voice-leading syntax of gt dyads is more varied and is always in dialogue with these tonal hierarchies, within which gt dyads are subsumed. 350c69d7ab


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                                                                          “ 白纸抗议”昭示着中国新一代公民意识的觉醒!


  思乡心切的老伴儿几乎每一天都要跟她在这个世界上最亲近的人, 她的亲姐姐,也是我的大姨子​通电话。一向性格外向,率直健谈的大姨子姐几天前突然不接电话,令老伴儿万分紧张。给外甥通电话后才知道大姨子姐下楼去超市买把儿香菜,突然被几个大白架上囚车一样的防疫运输车拉走了。目的地是郊县的一个隔离中心。
        听到这个消息, 我和老伴儿都傻了。心中的忧虑和怒火油然而生。 这是甚麽国家, 甚麽政府, 甚麽官员, 竟敢如此胆大包天, 无视公民最基本的人权, 肆意践踏公民的尊严, 自由甚至人身安全? 这与土匪横行的旧中国有何差别?!
两天后,我们就看到了发生在新疆乌鲁木齐市十人被大火活活烧死的悲惨新闻。 翌日, 乌鲁木齐市就爆发中国自抗疫以来第一场公民抗命群体事件。紧接着就是上海, 兰州, 广州, 北京, 和其他一些城市年轻学生以及市民自发的抗议活动。 随着推特, 抖音和Tiktok 以及有关相关视频的展示, 一出出, 一幕幕曾经多么熟悉的景象又展现在我的眼前。
       在此之前, 通过中国国内的抖音,快手以及微视等社交平台我已经看到了在中国各地出现的中国防疫毫无人性的乱象和令人愤慨的“官员”行为。在这些短录像中, “大白” 不给任何解释随意封控居民小区, 强行私闯民宅“消毒”,拉人, 骂人, 打人。 中华人民共和国的合法公民在二十一世纪迎接中华民族复兴的伟大时刻却令人心寒的迎来了人人噤若寒蝉, 人人与邻为壑, 人人各自举报, 人人互相猜忌仇恨的“文革”岁月!
      曾几何时, 我等海外华人为中国政府科学, 快速, 高效和亲民的防疫抗疫高声喝彩。 为了反击西方媒体对中国肆意的抹黑,歪曲和造谣, 我开通了自己的Tiktok, Reel 和Shorts, 夜以继日的上传祖国在抗击疫情, 科学技术和人文关怀所取得任何进步, 还专门配上英语解说。 不到三个月就收获五万多粉丝, 点赞数超过三百万。 中国太空人顺利进入空间站我流泪,比亚迪电动车又传销售捷报我欢呼雀跃, 陈薇博士又研制出了新的疫苗我开心一晚上。 一晃儿严格的防疫抗疫到了第三个年头。 眼见的善良, 柔顺和勤劳的中国老百姓从合作,苦中作乐, 配合, 坚持,到了今天的无奈, 绝望和愤怒。而解决目前中国防疫困局的药方很简单, 哪就是体谅百姓的困苦, 依照与时俱进的原则逐渐放开管制,并对因防疫封孔而造成生活困顿的家庭以及个人进行政策扶助救济,推迟车贷, 房贷, 卡贷等债务的支付, 严格监管断供房产的法拍,法没和租客权益维护,并开通政府监管热线, 让在防疫抗疫中受到不合法,不公正, 不人道对待的群众即时举报,控诉和申诉。但是, 一向标榜“民之所忧,我必念之。 民之所盼, 我必行之”的中国政府高层除了一味的强调严控疫情,动态清零以外,对百姓的拮据和困苦始终无动于衷, 而地方政府以及官员更是冷酷无情,甚至人性尽失。 动辄强行拉人, 封门关户,造成了多少妻离子散,家庭破损。而政府的公务员更好似封建社会的衙门恶役,对百姓恣意打骂,侮辱。。。这一一切切让我怀疑这是不是新中国, 中华人民共和国?
      常言道: 水宜疏不宜堵。水如此, 民意岂不更是如此? 当乌鲁木齐传来烧死人的惨案而全国百姓和青年学生有怨言的时候, 中国政府应该由国务院出面对全国民众道歉, 并迅速提出因应措施和救助方案, 并以此为鉴, 顺应民意改善先行的已经弊端百出的防疫政策。 如此, 全国人民必然感到民众有心声, 政府有回应。 官民一条心, 共同迎胜利。 而现实是什么呢? 军警上街, 坦克出更,当街抓人, 官媒胡喷。民众和学生自发的小群体抗议发生成了受“境外反华势力”的煽动, 意图发动新时代“颜色革命”。 真是滑天下之大稽, 愚不可及! 一手好牌让这样的独裁, 傲慢, 残酷的政府打了个稀巴烂!
      这两天我翻看各种新闻, 中国航天人又顺利进入了中国人自己的空间站。以前网上这类新闻的点赞数瞬间几万, 几十万, 几百万。 每一个中国人不管身处何地都为中国取得的伟大成就高歌喝彩, 倍感自豪。 而今天, 我不出意外地发现没有什么人对这个新闻再感兴趣了。当然在卡达尔的足球世界杯比赛固然吸引了很多人的注意力, 但是更大的原因我想则是人们对今日之中国已经大失所望。是呀, 当一个国家对自己的百姓毫不在乎, 任意欺压和迫害的时候,又有谁会关心这样的“喜讯”? 一个"进步“和”发展“的中国在正在满腔愤懑,生活困苦的老百姓面前又有何用?
       我从来不敢低估美国”中情局“和形形色色的NGO非政府组织策反甚至颠覆其他国家政权的能力, 也从不否认西方媒体造谣抹黑中国政府的恶劣行为, 因为我曾经和他们正面干过架。但是, 如果中国政府如今非把当下的”白纸抗议“活动说成是部分群众和学生受到了所谓”境外势力“的指使和煽动, 就如同几年前的香港"黑暴”事件一样, 我十二万分的不同意。被政府的抗疫防疫政策严格封控了三年的中国老百姓通过各种媒体也认识到了新冠病毒的蜕变以及世界其他各国的现实状况,逐渐感到中国作为世界“抗疫孤岛”的荒唐与不合理之处, 再加上三年的不正常生活, 封控, 静默, 禁行以及收入剧减,人们对中国政府的现行政策已经从绝对的服从, 配合, 遵令到抵触; 大众的心里从苦中作乐, 无可奈何到愤怒失常。中国政府应该做的体谅人民的苦衷, 感激民众的配合, 补偿人民的损失, 照顾百姓的生活, 疏导失常的心理。而绝非今天的严厉谴责, 暴力惩罚和课以刑责!
      中国改革开放已经四十年有余。 中国亿万百姓早就不是迟钝,愚昧和无知的封建后人, 而是在现代媒体和自我学习加持下觉醒的一代。人间的善与恶, 丑与美,恨与爱, 是与非等早已了然于胸。为什麽不断标榜在科学技术上不断超越欧美西方国家的中国政府并不认为自己的国民已经在人文思想领域也早已经成熟并超越了所谓的“境外势力”了呢?


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